I’ve heard of "community property." Is that something other than "marital property"?
No, community property is marital property, in community property states. That sounds confusing, but it can be explained this way: Some states divide all marital property equally. These states are called "community property states," in that all property becomes property of the "community" of the marriage. So, if you live in a community property state, marital property is usually referred to a community property. California, for example, is famously a community property state. Some of the other community property states are Arizona, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin.
Examples of principles used by the court in a community property state are as follows:
California is a "community property" state. Any jointly-held property is presumed to be "community" property, unless it is clearly stated in a deed or written agreement that the property is "separate" property. Unless the spouses agree otherwise, all community and quasi-community property is divided equally between the spouses. If economic circumstances warrant, however, the court may award any asset to one spouse on such conditions, as it feels proper to provide for a substantially equal distribution of property. In addition, if one of the spouse’s has deliberately misappropriated community property, the court may make an unequal division of the community property. Marital contributions to the education and training of the other spouse that substantially increases or enhances the other spouse’s earning capacity are reimbursable to the community property. Each spouse shall be responsible for the following debts: (1) those incurred prior to marriage, (2) any separate debts during the marriage that were not incurred to benefit the community (marriage), (3) their equitable share of any community debts made during the marriage, and (4) any debts incurred after separation and before dissolution of marriage if the debts were for non-necessities and an equitable share of debts incurred during this period if the debts were for necessities. [Annotated California Code; Sections 2581, 2601, 2602, 2620, 2621, 2623, 2625, and 2641].